Q: What is Southern Pine Decline? A: Dieback and premature death of loblolly pine, caused by abiotic and biotic factors including root-feeding insects and Leptographium species fungi. SGSF Pine Decline Policy

Q: What is Leptographium? A: Leptographium is a fungal genus containing many species which infect stressed and dying hosts, as well as a few which are pathogenic to healthy trees. Other closely related genera include "Ophiostoma and Grossmania". See Insects and Diseases page

Q: What can a forest manager due to maintain a healthy pine stand? A: Thinning (planting at lower density), prescribed fire, harvest earlier than later, chemically treat, and diversify tree species.

Q: What is a Hylastes beetle? A: Bark beetles that are common in the Southeast, known to be secondary pests. See Insects and Diseases page.

Q: What is littleleaf disease? A: Disease that causes death in older shortleaf pines. See Insects and Diseases page.

Q: What is annosus root rot? A: Caused by a fungus that enters dead or dying trees, but can grow through root grafts and infect healthy trees. It is also known as Fomes and Heterobasidion. See Insects and Diseases page.

Q: What is an invasive? A: Organisms termed 'invasive' are typically undesirable, even harmful species which tend to spread prolifically and cause some sort of damage. Typically this term is applied to non-native species which have been introduced. However, it can apply to native species occurring in new habitats, or behaving in a new, more invasive manner.

Q: What is a decline? A:  When a set of abiotic and biotic factors work together to cause reductions in tree health over time, leading to eventual tree mortality.  This generally occurs over a large area, and can spread throughout the forest stand or adjacent stands.